architect, artist, academic


competition entry for garden pavilion


As the year 2020 ends, the world looks upon itself and calls for a proper retrospection. Global warming and the bushfire crisis, global pandemic and societal lockdown. As we head home and shut ourselves in, we question our role as individuals to the world, we question what is important to our well-being.

Meandering through the bluestone maze, that seemingly appears out of the ground, one retires to a small bench, set away, physically distanced from the other benches. The sculptures are perhaps noticed, subtly framed by the slender posts and the positioning of the bench amidst the nearby planters, like one’s cared pot plants at home.

One’s own mirror, potted plants on the sill, the view out the window – mundane but elemental memories of the pandemic lockdown that keeps us sane.

Looking up the pavilion, one sees their own reflection, not by itself but now amongst the landscape and others around the pavilion. Like the countless windows of virtual conferencing, this underlines the notion that we are not alone, but part of a bigger collective.

Our role as individuals are now visible to the landscape, pertinent to the collective resilience and action to the world. Like the glimpse of light amongst the moving mirrors, we need to persevere past our retrospection to change the fragile world as contemplated in this pavilion of reflection.


tender submission for public art lighting

in collaboration with Light Application Pty Ltd

The idea Passing Light takes cue from numerous contextual influences of the site. First, the history of previous grain silo building that is demolished prior in anticipation of the upcoming assembly building. The new building shares a few similarities to the old building, one the really long elongated elevation of the building, two both having a striking curvilinear form of the roof and three the regular intermediates of the previous buttresses and the new intermediates of the translucent roof.

The broader site also marks the rich history of the railway assembly in Midland, and the symbolic terminus of the Midland line. The Midland Railway Workshops nearby and the new assembly building undoubtedly demonstrate this.

On the other hand, the junction of Roe Highway and the railway reserve offers a unique vantage point of the rail terminus towards west, setting a romantic scene of the setting sun. It should also be noted that the yellow themed artworks that comes about the interchange of the Roe Highway.

With these aspects, it is logical that the southern façade of the roof presents the biggest visual opportunity, highlighting the elongation of the building, the terminus of the railway from both the reserve as well as Roe Highway.

Repetitive light strips are proposed to be installed across the whole projected southern elevation of the roof, parallel to the roof sheet on every intermediate corrugation of the roof, highlighting the same orientation of the roof of the new assembly building and the demolished grain silo. At every translucent roof sheet, the brightness is amplified by doubling the light strips, pointing to the bays of the warehouse structure and reminding one of the buttresses of the previous building. Whilst also highlight both the curvilinear nature of both the old and new roof, the brightness of each strip peaks at the tangent of the roof, almost like a crescent.

 The animating light is intended to be gradual across each strips, suggesting the gracious changing wave of the light spectrum, rather than rapid moving images. The colour tones are suggested to be of yellow, orange and red gradient, referencing the red Midland, the yellow wildflowers and of Roe Highway Interchange, the sandy soil, and last but not least, the setting of the western sun.

Hereby, like a melancholic scene, the light phases through the setting sun, celebrating the old good days, the rail terminus of Midland, the passing of the grain silo building for the future, hence the name Passing Light.


competition entry to rebuild a jetty

in collaboration with Louise Allen

There is a strong sense of nostalgia in regards to the demolished Brookes Jetty, St Kilda. The old jetty was a narrowly intimate 1.2 meters wide beautiful timber structure, characterised by its thick timber boards and rhythm of timber piling; aging with time, extended over the existing concrete stormwater drain. Many memories are made here; walk out to the sea, reconnect with nature, picnic and swim, propose or get married, scatter ashes, meditate and daydream. Hereby the intention of this proposal is to somehow bring back the beloved jetty, building upon the characteristics of the old jetty whilst also acknowledging that this will be a new jetty over the old. The new jetty is meant to rekindle those memories made, and also allowing the making of new memories.

For one, the plungeboard is designed specifically for friends to leap into the water, with a metal ladder on the side to climb back to the jetty. A series of ledges, for akin fishing mates to sit on, with their feet dangled in the air. Swimming below the jetty, the gaps between the timber boards allow playful light to glimpse through. This proposal also acknowledges that the concrete stormwater drain will need to be rebuilt. If budget permits, an ecological solution to stormwater is presented. Rather than a straightforward drain to divert stormwater as quick as possible, the drain is allowed to spill through the sides, akin to a river, bringing back native planting and land formation around and beneath the jetty.

The first part of the jetty is intended to be built with concrete, reminiscing the engineering history of the drain; but formed with timber boards – alluding to the next structure. The main part of the jetty is then built with treated timber similar to the old jetty, as timber weathers characteristically with the passing of time. Nevertheless, the timber posts are accentuated on the sides of the jetty, a nod to timber carpentry. The rhythm of timber posts is foreshadowed as poles wrapping around the initial concrete structure as well as bollards leading from the Burley Griffin pillars. Knowing that the timber would need to be replaced in the future, a masterplan is envisioned. Replaced timber poles can perhaps be reinstated as bollards further back towards Shakespeare Grove, reinforcing the axis of the jetty and also renewing the material memory of the jetty. These reclaimed timber can also be constructed as solid timber benches along the axis – like the one at the end of the jetty; as a place to sit and daydream.

In a deliberate manner, the timber posts continues rhytmically past the jetty and slowly descending in height, evoking an image of the previously demolished jetty towards the ocean, a melancholy of an unattainable past. The series of timber posts lowers itself towards the ocean, a gesture to the horizon and the sunset. Then, a series of recessed solar lights atop the posts, illuminating the jetty and the ocean beyond. Here at the end of jetty, the strongest memories are made; a couple proposing in matrimony, or the scattering of ashes, expressions of love – with the ocean, the sunset and the horizon as witness. Hence, the name Memory Jetty.


shortlisted proposal for a temporary garden installation

in collaboration with Louise Allen


Our proposal is born from the question of safety in cities in our era of Trumpian xenophobia, the overreaction of the city installing anti terror bollards in response to car attacks and the perception of building walls and fences are necessary for safety at the sacrifice of sense of welcoming and openness in public spaces. While the discussion of urban security remains an issue of complex dimensions, with this pavilion we have intended to hark back to the humble garden bollards, simple and low natural timber poles that lines our parks that while also preventing car access to parks, they lies within our psyche of public parks, defining a malleable and soft territory within parks and the playful juvenile imaginations of garden bollards as stepping stones and zig zag runs.

The garden bollards dotted in a serial and linear manner, forming an invisible line that only exists in the mind. Bounding in response to the geometry of the surrounding buildings, regions of open air garden rooms defined within the park. The diagonal transverses the paved and the lawn seemingly joining and inviting passers-by to walk across the lawn. Then the bollards connects park paraphernalias, the sculptures, trees, playground not unlike a walking trail, reacting, marking and carving spaces around such objects in the landscape.

At one moment the bollards are arranged in a grid-like manner, marking a region of a space rather than an imaginary line, in the hopeful intention of being a gathering space, where the bollards present themselves as seats. And the other, tall bollards or rightfully poles in a grid, evocations of tree trunks in a forest setting. Childlike imaginations of playful running among the trunks, or of aimless meandering. The third structure, a culmination of bollards slowly merging into a mass structure, a stepped hill. A prompt for climbing experiences and standing on the top of the plinth.

The densities of the bollards change, denser and intensifies the enclosement of boundaries. And serendipitously the height of the bounding bollards grows taller and slowly morphs into a fence. Impeding movement and visual transparency, objects beyond the fence becomes landmarks of curiosity and hopeful pedestrians trail along the bollards to eventually breach into the forbidden territory.


competition entry for transport hub

in association with PO WORKSHOP

Tropical Foyer

The transport hub will be a significant meeting place for locals and foreigners to Jakarta. A place where one greets welcome or goodbye, an impression of the city of Jakarta and to Indonesia. It is this significance that we felt it is important to express the tropical city of Jakarta, its lush greenery amongst the bustling modern metropolis. A holistic integrated landscape masterplan that connects the multiple modes of public transport. The street that connects to airport link will be paved for shared pedestrian & car use to define the entry to the transport hub and slowing traffic speed. A covered walkway and accessible lift connecting both the commuter rail and rapid bus transit. The transport hub itself is composed of two components; the office tower and the podium. The podium is naturally ventilated with tall ceiling space, surrounded by retail cafe spaces and greenery, amidst the arrival area of cars, taxis and ridesharing – an atrium, a gathering space. On top of this podium is a rooftop garden – shared by the public and the office workers alike. The tower block, defined by steel cladded awnings remniscent of Indonesian roof pitches and the modernist brise-soleil providing sun shading for office workers. Lined with climbing plants – softening the facade of the glass curtain walls. Our proposal the Tropical Foyer hopes to define Jakarta with its lush greenery over raw concrete along the astute black steel cladding – welcoming the locals to home and foreigners to the tropics.


proposal for energy generator




The starting point of the scheme is framing the question of how energy generation infrastructure can be embedded into the unique locality of St Kilda, its history, culture and place. To start the research about history of St Kilda beginning with the traditional owners of the Bunurong people and in particular the St Kilda Corroboree Tree or ‘Ngargee’ red gum tree that predates the European settlement. The tree is one of the oldest living things in Melbourne, though to be between 300 – 500 years old and serves as an important cultural meeting location for the Bunurong people and for the annual corroboree dreamtime ceremony.

Subsequently the name St Kilda for the neighbourhood is named in 1841 after a ship that moored on the beach on the same year. Even in the early maritime history the sight of the St Kilda beach is a view to be reckoned prior to the arrival to Port Melbourne. Very quickly the location became a favoured location for the wealthy to move in for the proximity to the beach and soon the delta wetlands landscape is developed into a neighbourhood of exquisite Victorian and Edwardian mansions including the Esplanade Hotel overlooking the beach. This is expedited with the construction of tramlines along the bay that stops at the triangle site nominated.

It was not until the Great Depression that St Kilda began to decline with the seashore becoming the popular entertainment and red light district for the working classes. The wealthy moved out and thus began the bohemian culture for St Kilda. This is vividly denoted by the construction of Luna Park and Palais Theatre by Carlo Catani. It should also be worth mentioning that St Kilda became a focus of Melbourne’s social issues including prostitution and drug abuse during this era while the bohemian arts and culture grew. Compared to Brighton Beach, the bohemian St Kilda is rather known for its calmer seas – hence the mooring point for sailing boats at the pier that sits in front of the skyline of Melbourne today.


Compared to other states in Australia, Victoria is less known for its sunny days but rather the gusting winds. With the maritime history of St Kilda from the marooned schonner to the landscape of the sails over the skyline, it felt appropriate to harness the energy of the wind and to store them into battery packs to increase reliability. Rather than being individual turbines dotting over the landscape, a long veil-like structure echoing the linear nature of the bay and the tramline is carefully placed along the site avoiding trees and other suspended infrastructures. The veil is envisioned as a semi-transparent tapestry that gradually becomes less solid closer to eye level to preserve visibility of the horizon from the esplanade. The bottom part of the veil is composed of loose strings, thus minimizing entanglement and obstruction to traffic and public. The energy is harnessed by a simple four bar linkage mechanism not dissimilar to a scalable version of Theo Jansen’s Strandbeest. The rotating turbine themselves are located underground perhaps visible and easy to access with removable steel grating. With St Kilda’s average wind speed of 20km/h the 25 rotors of 40kwh each are estimated to generate the amount of 1 mwh.

The battery packs rather than being laid across the site is minimally stacked into a form of tower echoing the heights and length of the Palais Theatre and is arranged in a herringbone manner to become a visible infrastructure almost like an archival library setting with a public thoroughfare. The battery tower is also possibly proposed to store even external capacity of power generated elsewhere.


The St Kilda’s veil is the manifestation of diverse history, culture and place of St Kilda. Arranged in a linear manner the veil draws upon the maritime image of St Kilda prior to arriving in Port Melbourne – elongates in the landscape like the tracks of the tramline leading to the city. The twenty five 30 meter poles, like the numerous sail poles of the yachts anchored in St Kilda Pier holds up the continuous veil. The colours, the red and orange reflecting the colours of the traditional land – the red gum of the St Kilda Corroboree Tree, the bright colours of the red-light entertainment district of the St Kilda history. The deep purple – the bohemian and LGBT culture of St Kilda. The tapestry of the veil long drawn and visibly composed of strings perhaps alluding to the unashamingly unconventional Bohemian tapestry. The bottom of the veil  – composed loosely of strings evokes akin to a Bohemian doorway of beaded curtains. Wavering slowly against the winds these strings billows slowly and invites the passersby to walk across and touch the soft tapestry, inviting playfulness evocated by Luna Park. At night, different brightness of animating lights elucidates the waving speed of the curtain against the wind. From the compositing identities of the indigenous, maritime and Bohemian, St Kilda’s Veil – the wind curtain foretells St Kilda as a visual prelude to Melbourne and Victoria’s energy overlaying initiative.


proposal for tapestry design

in collaboration with Louise Allen

Etienne Louis Boullee’s design for Cenotaph for Newton manifests the understanding of the universe at the time into a visionary work of architecture. The shape of the massive sphere recollects the almost fully discovered known world globe and known shapes of most celestial objects. At daytime; the sphere casts pinhole lights into the interior like stars among the cosmos and at night; a lantern in the center of the sphere shines bright light like the sun in the solar system. In the same honorific spirit, our proposal for the tapestry imagines to exemplify the zeitgeist of our knowledge of the universe not dissimilar to Jean Tinguely mechanical reconstructions – to dedicate to the passing of the greatest mind of our time – Stephen Hawking.

Our investigation begins with the questioning of the flatness of a tapestry work – to equal the relative flatness of the known universe in the cosmic scale. Like Einstein’s theory of general relativity of how gravity of planet Earth warps the space-time like a ball in a trampoline – we draped the tapestry around the globe, distorting the flatness of the tapestry into a surface that envelops spatially. The curvature and transparency is manipulated through elements of tapestry; the weaving of threads through the forces of tension and gravity pulling the tapestry needle to the ground. Like a strong gravitational pull, the observer is drawn into the curvature defining the entry and inherently the spacetime around him.

Inside the shroud, the form that has always been the lifetime fascination of Stephen Hawking reveals itself – a singularity, the vortex of the black hole where the gravity is so immense that light will not be able to escape. Such intriguing form in its grandiose scale manifests itself in the engineering necessity of nuclear cooling towers. Being inside one, the observer is drawn into the accentuating light, except in a black hole – into the unescapable abyss. The semi invisible cosmic colours of the microwave spectrum drawn into the blackness escaping comprehension; the likes of the fleeting aurora, or the blurry nebula. From the threads of gravitational and electromagnetic waves. Emblematic of Stephen Hawking’s life, we invite the observers to look up not into the angst of existential black hole; but to be humbled with the mysteries of the cosmos and to persevere towards the unknown edge of the universe.


runner-up submission entry for installation
in collaboration with Jacqueline Armstrong & Nicholas Putrasia

How do we perceive sound spatially? A three dimensional sinusoidal wave consisting of individual paper rolls suspended in space by helium balloons. The wave peaks in the center of the void, simultaneously appreciating the spiral staircase. The observers may interact with the installation by rolling up and down individual paper rolls, generating a moving visual rthym in space.

The installation puts forward that a sound element, the sound wave such as a set of rthym or even a musical note is a collection of smaller units making up a discernible composition. Like the suspending paper rolls, they are a series of oscillations making up a perceptible pattern. The visual perception of the wave also depends on the position of the observer in space, whether you are on the foyer, the staircase or the mezzanine, not dissimilar to our relativistic perception of sound. This illustrates the fact that the sound that one hears is slightly different than another individual depending on just where they stand in relation to the source of the sound.

We all understand that sound is produced by oscillations, which is usually graphically represented as waves. However, this is only two dimensional. Sound does not just travel in two dimensions, it travels in four,  including space and time.

Sound moves through space in a series of oscillations, warping and compressing itself around bodies in space not unlike a gravitational field. Here the spiral staircase in the void acts as a body that disrupts the travel of sound wave, being compressed and appreciated around the object, as compared to the sound wave that travels through an objectless space.

Sound henceforth is thus subtly modified, appreciated and heightened to us just by being there, as our bodies in space demands the warping of the sound wave around us.


shortlisted competition entry for an office tower

in collaboration with Raymond Warnerin, Frans Tamasoleng, Susanty Artha Gilberte

White Tenun Tower

A tall building should interrelate between the human scale and the scale of the surrounding buildings in the city. With the location of the site between the pedestrian lane, street, overpass freeway and the light rail transit the relationship of buildings with other scales are amplified due to differences in speed of movement and perspective.

The four storey podium is a direct formal response to the overpass whilst the office tower is sitting above. The podium consists of public facilities featuring open mezzanine levels with a view to the surroundings. Vertical fins is a logical sunscreen solution, graded in scale and exaggerates height, is arranged from human scale, scale of vehicular perspective, scale of buildings and finally the scale of the cityscape are weaved (tenun in Indonesian) in a continuous manner. The result, a unique facade expression that is experienced differently depending on the mode of movement.

Energy systems strive to promote optimum natural systems wherever possible, including an innovative employing mist in the double skin glazing system from collected rainwater to cool down the building, natural ventilation in the lobby, mezzanine and atrium, and greywater recycling.

The atrium within the building penetrates from the ground level to the uppermost level, functioning not just as a ventilation strategy, but also allows visitors from the lobby to have a glimpse to the sky. The open air four level mezzanine acts as a circulation space for the public facilities, and also exhibits the public activities to the street, humanising the scale of the tower. The facade articulation returns into the soffit of the podium, creating a grand ceiling to the public towards the auditorium.


merit award submission entry for urban architectural idea competition

in association with PO WORKSHOP

Mangrove City: Future of Muara Angke Fishermen Village, Jakarta


Our architectural proposal to the current and foreseeable issues of sea level rise and land subsistence is not one of defence strategies such as sea wall or land filling that requires continuous effort but rather working in tandem with the nature. Mangrove will be planted to stabilise the soil and improve sedimentation whereas the floating platform will be built around mangrove trees – that rises and ebbs according to the sea level.

Starting with a single mangrove tree, a floating platform is constructed around it, using the tree as an anchor and support. This platform can then be used for landing of boats, and for fishing, hanging nets from the platform. As the tree grows, the tree can be pruned to grow straight up. Steps can then be constructed and a second platform can then be built to form the second level. This platform will then be connected to other platforms via a broadwalk spanning across the mangrove forest, creating a new layer above the water.

The proposal utilises the local construction method of simple timber construction typical of fishermen villages, enabling the roll-out of the urban plan at little to no cost and immediately. All the construction components are derived in a modular construction grid of beam and post and are expected to develop organically depending on the needs and placement of mangrove seedlings.

Four main ingredients are proposed for the urban design strategy; the mangrove floating hub, building units, pavilions and boardwalk decking each playing their own role. Taking upon the Indonesian urban typology of a fishing village and the cooperative ‘gotong-royong’ the mangrove hub and the pavilions acts as urban centers for the community. The elevated boardwalk serves as the primary pedestrian level whereas the canals and sea level acts as landing and movement of boats.

The pavilions looming over as urban centers of the organically developed city provided by the modular framework, and local timber construction engrained within fishermen villages. Mangrove tree courtyards provide relief to otherwise heavily dense settlement sitting harmoniously within the city. Overarching canals and boardwalk act as fingers towards the ocean, guiding the replanting of mangroves hand in hand with the continual sustainable development of the city that is always under construction.

The urban strategy roadmap outlines the future development from a fishing village into a Mangrove City into a fully fledged self-sustainable economic city in fifty years timeframe. The main areas of focus would be fishing industry, mangrove reforesting and sea level climate research to be developed into an international hub with both development and environment improved hand in hand as opposed to against each other.

The urban architecture proposal of employing the mangrove tree in conjunction with the floating decking platform tackling both the threats of sea level rise and land subsidence at both fronts in a symbiotic manner instead of a defensive nature. The architectural form and construction embosses the culture and tradition of that of a Southeast Asian fishing villages, restoring honour and pride to that of the honest fishermen’s work while the urban strategy roadmap progressively advances the local economy of the fishing industry and mangrove ecology into the future of a internationally recognized fishing hub and sea level & climate change response headquarters.